Decameron

From Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding 18

Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

Introduction

The Decameron was written by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 1375), an Italian poet and Renaissance Humanist. Comprised of 100 novellas told by ten men and women over a ten day journey fleeing plague-infested Florence, the Decameron is an allegorical work famous for its bawdy portrayals of everyday life, its searing wit and mockery, and its careful adherence to a framed structure. The title itself, is a portmanteau of the two Greek words δέκα déka (meaning “ten) and ἡμέρα hēméra, or “day.” [1] Boccaccio drew on many influences in writing the Decameron, and many writers, including Martin Luther, Chaucer, and Keats, later drew inspiration from The Decameron[2].


Boccaccio: (Biography and Works)

Portrait of Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio’s was born in June or July [3] of 1313 BCE in Certaldo or Florence, to an unknown mother and a wealthy Florentine merchant Boccaccino di Chellino. In 1326 (at age 13) his father was appointed to head of the Neapolitan branch of his bank, and the family moved to Naples. Though his father intended for him to study banking, Boccaccio convinced his father to permit him to study law. As a student, he was introduced to the French influenced Neapolitan nobility of Robert of Anjou (also known as Robert the Wise, King of Naples from 1309 – 1343, and a generous patron of the arts), and married his daughter.

He began to study canon law in 1330, and possibly attended lessons of Cino da Pistoia [4], a friend of Dante and Petrarch. Moving to Paris in 1332, he pursued his interest in literature, writing his first Latin essays (Elegia di costanza and Allegoria mitologica) and first vernacular poetry [5]. In King Robert of Naples’ Court, he wrote his first works, including Filostrato (1340), on which Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde was later based. These vernacular works merged the classical culture with the thematic ideas and meters of contemporary Italian poetry [6].

However, in 1341, his father’s bank fell, and Boccaccio returned to Florence, where he continued to write (in 1343, composing Elegia di Madonna Fiammetta or The Elegy of Madonna Fiametta, one of the first psychological novels of European literature [4]). In 1348 Florence is struck by the Black Plague, which kills his father, step mother and various friends. Boccaccio began composing the Decameron the year after, concurrently working on Genealogia deorum Gentilium (Geneology of the Pagan Gods), a Latin compendia, under the tutelage of Petrarch [7] [8], which remains unfinished until 1374, a year before his death.

The Decameron was finished in 1353, and concludes a youthful period of works featuring the telling of tales, but its scale alludes to his later encyclopedic Latin compendia [9]. The Decameron represents the shift in languages experienced during the Renaissance; while Boccaccio’s Latinate style of Italian reveals his lifelong engagement with the Classics, he wrote the Decameron in Italian, in admiration of his fellow Florentine Dante.

Boccaccio fell ill in 1372, troubled by obesity and high fevers [10]. With financial troubles and poor health, he traveled back to Certaldo in 1374 and writes his last sonnet when he hears his long time friend Petrarch has died. Boccaccio dies shortly thereafter in December of 1375 in his Certaldo home.

The Decameron: historical background

The Decameron was written between 1350 and 1353 and set during the Black Death (or Black Plague), which struck Florence in 1348. 14th Century Italy was struck by famines and wars which only spurred the diffusion of epidemics like the Black Plague. With the significant reduction of laborers and professionals came the collapse of the financial structure; the merchant class became fundamental to society, maintaining relationships with the nobility and aristocracy.

The Plague

"Die Pest in Epiros" ("The Plague in Epirus") a copper engraving by Pierre Mignard (1610-1665) depicts a bubonic plague epidemic.

“The sum of thirteen hundred and forty eight years had elapsed since the fruitful Incarnation of the Son of God, when the noble city of Florence, which for its great beauty excels all others in Italy, was visited by the deadly pestilence. Some say that it descended upon the human race through the influence of the heavenly bodies, others that it was a punishment signifying God’s righteous anger at our iniquitous way of life.” Thus begins Boccaccio’s description of the plague in The First Day of The Decameron. The Decameron is written against the historical backdrop of The Plague in Medieval Florence; the Plague serves as both a setting and a central theme determining the values of the characters. [11] The Plague, or the Black Death, swept through medieval Europe in the 1340s, killing tens of millions an estimated 50~60% of the European population. The scale of death and fear caused social, political, economic and religious disturbance in medieval society [12]

The “Black Death” began in the East was a combination of various strains of the bacteria yersina pestis [13] which lives in the stomach of fleas resident on black rats. The death of infected rats cause the relocation of the fleas, often on a human host, beginning the contagion that quickly spread throughout the European countries. The Black Death was a combination of three specific plagues: the Bubonic plague (infection of the lymph nodes), Pneumonic Plague (infection of lungs) and the Speticemic Plague (infection of the blood).

Boccaccio describes the Plague’s symptoms: “its earliest symptom, in men and women alike, was the appearance of certain swellings in the groin or the armpit, some of which were egg-shaped whilst others were roughly the size of the common apple. … Later on, the symptoms of the disease changed, and many people began to find dark blotches and bruises on their arms, thighs, and other parts of the body, sometimes large and few in number, at other times tiny and closely spaced. These, to anyone un-fortunate enough to contract them, were just as infallible a sign that he would die as the gavocciolo (swellings) had been earlier and as indeed it still was.” His description is of the Bubonic Plague, the classic sign of which were the buboes (or swellings) in the groin, neck and armpits. Victims of the bubonic plague died within a week of infection and had a mortality rate of 30 – 70%.

Second most deadly was the pneumatic plague, which killed 90 – 95 % of its victims and presented with a cough, fever, and blood-tinged sputum. Most deadly was Septicemic plague which killed almost 100% of its victims and presented victims with purple skin patches [14].

The high mortality rates of these plagues were greatly due to the lack of medicine. Boccaccio describes the lack of remedy and the speed with which the pestilence spread through the city. He further describes the effects of the plague on the social interactions of the citizens: “it was not merely a question of one citizen avoiding another, and of people almost invariably neglecting their neighbors or rarely or never visiting their relatives, addressing them only from a distance; this scourge had implanted so great a terror in the hearts of men and women that brothers abandoned brothers… but even worse, and almost incredible, was the fact that fathers and mothers refused to nurse and assist their own children, as though they did not belong to them.”

This is the backdrop to which The Decameron is written. Boccaccio describes the society that transpired – those who isolated themselves from the Plague, and those who tried to live life to the fullest in a life that was destined to be cut short by the inevitable sickness. The ten pilgrims who flee Florence were among the multitudes of citizens who abandoned the city and their homes heading for the countryside or abroad. The plague had an enormous effect on the social, political, economic and religious environment of the Europe that remained; it is against this setting of despair, frenzied hedonism, and change that the stories of the Decameron are told.

The Decameron

Frame Narrative

Characters

A Tale from the Decameron by John William Waterhouse

The group of ten Florentine youths, known as the “brigata,” comprises seven women and three men, each of whom has an allegorical role. McWilliam writes that the women probably represent the four cardinal virtues (Prudence, Justice, Temperance, and Fortitude) and the three theological virtues (Faith, Hope, and Love) [15]. The men are the three could represent the tripartite division of the soul into Reason, Anger, and Lust. The author writes in the Introduction that he has withheld the true names of the members of the brigata, because he doesn’t want them to “feel embarrassed, at any time in the future, on account of the ensuing stories, all of which they either listened to or narrated themselves [16]. The translations of the Italian names of the members of the Brigata, with their possible allegorical roles, is as follows [17]:

Pampinea-full of vigor (Prudence) Fiammetta-little flame (Temperance) Filomena-the beloved, or lover of song (Fortitude) Emilia-she who allures (Faith) Elissa-an Italian variant on Dido (Hope) Neifile-newly enamored, possibly a reference to the dolce stil novo and Dante (Charity) Lauretta-a diminutive of Petrach’s Laura (Justice) Panfilo-all-loving (Reason) Filostrato- defeated by love (Anger) Dioneo-an italianized version of Dionysus (Lust)

Prologue

The Decameron begins with a prologue, in which the author discusses his recent near-death experience caused by an excess of passion. He thanks his friends, without whom he is “firmly convinced that I should have perished.” Grateful for the help received from others in his time of need, he presents his work as a guide for the lovesick. He singles out women, who are subjects to the wills of their family and also idle. While men, when consumed by passion, have ways of occupying themselves--hunting, gambling, business, etc--women are “cooped up within the narrow confines of their rooms...wishing one thing and at the same time wishing its opposite.” The author presents his stories, told by a “worthy” group of seven women and three men, to occupy and instruct love-distracted women. In the stories can be found “useful advice” that will help ladies “recognize what should be avoided and likewise what should be pursued” to alleviate the pain of love. [18]

Introduction

The Decameron is set in Florence in 1348, when the black plague has ravished the city. The social order has broken down: laws are not enforced, funeral rites are ignored as bodies pile up, and once-full households are peopled only by servants. Help is refused to the sick, and loyal servants die from exposure to their infected masters. Those who take up the task of removing bodies--a “gravedigging fraternity...drawn from the lower orders of society”--exploited the high demand for undertakers, and often ignored the dead person’s burial wishes. As graves fill up, churches begin building trenches to accommodate the flood of corpses.

Citizens approach the tragedy differently. Some choose to isolate themselves away from the infected, living without excess or entertainment. Others take advantage of the chaos and “drink heavily, enjoy life to the full...gratify all of one’s cravings whenever the opportunity offered, and shrug the whole thing off as one enormous joke.” A third group lives as they did before the plague, except now they carry around spices to combat the stench of rotting bodies.

Another alternative is to flee the city, believing that the disease wouldn’t spread beyond the city’s walls, or that Florence was being decimated by divine forces. Such is the decision arrived at by seven young ladies and three men who are attending services at the church of Santa Maria Novella. The well-off youths are emotionally depleted from the deaths of numerous friends and family members, and wish to escape the morbid scenes and eschew further exposure to the plague. They go to a country house, some two miles from the city, and spend ten carefree days of repose, festivities and storytelling. [19]

Significance

There are three spheres in the Decameron: the sphere of the author, the sphere of the narrator, and the sphere of the tales. The term “frame narrative” refers to the first two spheres, in which the hundred tales are housed. Its purpose has been the center of much critical debate, since the way in which the reader approaches the frame narrative greatly affects how she conceives of the whole work. Here are a few theories regarding the frame narrative.

The critic Aldo S. Bernardo investigates the frame narrative and concludes that its message to the reader is to treat the whole of the Decameron as a cautionary tale against lust. He cites the book’s subtitle, “Prince Galahalt,” which refers to the courtier who facilitated the illicit meetings between lovers. Galahalt is mentioned in Dante’s Inferno, in the story of Paola and Francesca, for whom a book about Lancelot and Guinevere served as a Galahalt, leading to their transgression, death and damnation. Writes Bernardo, “one can only conclude from Boccaccio’s subtitle, that his book, too may be an instrument of death and destruction if not read with care.” [20] The Augustinian tone set up by the first line of the Prologue, and the subsequent explication of the author’s own love-sickness, lead us to his statement that the book should be viewed as “useful advice.”

Barnardo believes the backdrop of the plague for the accentuates the wanton behavior of the brigata, who, through evasion, turn a blind eye to the catastrophe and human suffering. They eschew the necessary struggle toward holiness, called in the Prologue a climb up a “steep and rugged hill.” Writes Barnardo: “The narrator that [the brigata] has failed to undertake such a climb and thus are not to be envied or admired but rather to be viewed with scepticism and suspicion.” [21] We might be inclined to respect the clan for their self-preservation, but this admiration would only lead us to hedonism. “The brigata is the exemplification of the false good whose self-centeredness is the exact opposite of Christian doctrine and life.” [22]

The frame narrative, then, tells us in what light we should view the brigata and the tales they tell. We should not fall into complacency when reading the Decameron, but look for keys to leading a moral life through the ill behavior of the brigata and the characters in their stories.

The translator G.H. McWilliams believes the frame is an assertion of the legitimacy of the vernacular prose novel. It was common for medieval authors to address their reader not in their own voice, but in that of a persona. So, the Prologue, Introduction to Day Four, and Epilogue are literary fictions, as is the rest of the novel (excepting, we must assume, the description of the plague). In these passages, the speaker has an “ambivalent, tongue-in-cheek intonation, and it would be unwise to interpret them to literally” [23]. The purpose of the author addressing the reader is not to warn help love-sick ladies, but to “establish the aesthetic validity of the literary genre, narrative prose fiction, to which the Decameron belongs.” [24]

Throughout the aforementioned passages, the author makes use of many elaborate rhetorical devices, namely the opening proverb, which begins and ends with a cursus planus, a metrical figure consisting of a dactyl and a spondee. This device connotes “high seriousness.” [25] The passage on Envy, addressed to his critics, in the Intro to the Fourth Day is composed in an ironic tone of “false modesty,” suggesting that the stories told up this point are actually “written in a style that is elegant to a fault.” The story of Filippo Balducci contradicts his earlier suggestions of chastity by saying that a man’s love for a woman is only natural, and certainly no perversion. His retort to the claim that he should not be meddling with the affairs of younger women, but the muses on Mt. Parnassus, “confirms the desire to place this genre of writing fairly and squarely within the realm of poetry” [26].

Boccaccio’s irony comes through in the Epilogue as well, when he gives a “stock response of medieval rhetoricians” to the question of whether virtuous ladies should have narrated bawdy tales. He says that if the tales are not to the reader’s liking, one should blame the characters, because he only related the tales as they as the ladies told them. And, the stories should not be read by those who have “better things to do,” but were intended for “ladies with time on their hands.” [27] These are “mock dismissive tones,” and not to be believed. The author is fully aware of his skill and challenges those who say that the vernacular novel is not a time-worthy undertaking.

Major Themes

The hundred stories of the Decameron explore many themes, including wit, love, fortune, deception, sex and religion. Death, the backdrop to the brigata’s retreat from Florence, also plays a key role in the text. These themes appear numerous throughout the Decameron, often in the same story.

Awareness of the structure of themes in each day is critical to understanding the author’s intentions. See the section on numerology for an explanation of the strategic appearance of the theological virtues.


Numerology

Numerology in the Decameron plays a large role and possibly points to larger themes in the text. The number ten is significant, as it appears in the title (The Decameron), the number of members in the brigata, and the number of stories told in each day. The year in which Florence was decimated by the plague was 1348. The first and last digits add up to nine, while the middle two digits sum seven. There are three men and seven ladies in the brigata. The ladies all fall between the ages of eighteen and twenty-seven, both of which are multiples of three. The seven ladies are further divided into a group of three (the theological virtues) and four (the cardinal virtues). This division is made by those who bring handmaids and those who do not (cardinal virtues and theological virtues, respectively). The three theological virtues dominate the stories on the third, sixth, and ninth days. [28]

Furthermore, the years in which the ladies were born fall between 1321 and 1330, the digits of both of which add up to seven. The minimum age of the men is 25, and the digits “2” and “5” sum seven.

Aldo believes the numbers to “point to the presence of a triune God and of the labors involved in the seven days of creation (or in observing the seven virtues)” [29] The brigata, however, does not recognize God’s hand, and they choose to escape the plagued city and enjoy ten days of festivities. Their ignorance of the divine presence in their numbers, the brigata proves to be spiritually blind.

Summary of Tales

First Day, Third Story

Neifile’s story tells of Saladin, the sultan of Egypt, wishes to borrow, for no specified reason, a large sum from a wealthy but miserly Jew named Melchizedek. In order to convince the moneylender to agree to a loan, Saladin asks Melchizedek which of the three Abrahamic religions is “truly authentic.” Melchizedek, anticipating a trap, relates the story of the three rings, in which a beautiful ring is passed down for generations from a father to his favorite son. The ring reaches a man who has three worthy sons, and he promises each of them the ring. The man commissions a craftsman to make two identical rings, and bequeaths a ring unto each of his sons. When the man dies, each son produces his ring, and “the question of which of the sons was the true and rightful heir...has never been settled.”

Melchizedek compares this story to the three religions, each of which believes itself to be the rightful heir of God’s estate, with no means to prove which is the most worthy. Saladin realizes that the moneylender outwitted him, and asks him outright for money, which the Jew happily provides. Melchizedek is repaid in full and awarded gifts and honor for his trust in the sultan. [30]


Third Day, Tenth Story

Dioneo tells of Alibech, a simple, beautiful girl of fourteen who wishes to learn the ways of Christians. She goes into to desert in order to find a hermit who will teach her how best to serve God. Having been turned away by many hermits who feared that the girl would tempt them into sin, she comes upon a hermit named Rustico who takes her in, wanting to “prove to himself that he possessed a will of iron.” But, during the first night of her stay, he cannot suppress his desire. Upon finding that Alibech is a virgin, Rustico tells her that the most holy thing one can do is to “put the devil back in hell,” and he teaches her how to have intercourse. After some discomfort, Alibech soon finds “putting the devil back in hell” to be incredibly pleasurable, and Rustico cannot keep up with her sexual appetite, and the devil ceases to rear his head.

Alibech’s family dies when their home is burned down, and the girl is called back to the city in order to collect her inheritance and be wed to a wealthy man named Neerbal. Alibech is reluctant to leave her “holy” life, but the hermit is glad to be rid of her. [31]

Seventh Day, Fourth Story

Lauretta tells of a man named Tofano and his wife, Monna Ghita, a “woman of great beauty.” For no reason, Tofano becomes jealous of Monna Ghita, and she decides to make her husband suffer for his suspicion. She commences a tryst with a neighbor, and regularly encourages Tofano, a heavy drinker, to imbibe large amounts of alcohol. Tofano wonders why his wife herself never drinks. One night he comes home pretending to be drunk, and when his wife sees him in bed, she sneaks out to her lover. Tofano then locks his wife out of the house.

From his balcony, he yells insults at Monna Ghita, who pleads her innocence. She threatens to kill herself and throws a rock down a well. Tofano rushes out to look down the well, and Monna Ghita sneaks back into the house, bolts the door, and screams insults at her husband. This attracts the attention of the townsfolk, who beat Tofano mercilessly. Tofano, ashamed of his jealousy, reconciles with Monna Ghita. He allows to to sleep around “to her heart’s content, provided she was sensible enough not to let him catch her out.” [32]

Tenth Day, Tenth Story

Dioneo finishes the ten days of storytelling with the tale of Griselda. Gualtieri, the Marquis of Saluzzo is convinced by his advisors to find a wife, and he agrees, provided that they let him marry the woman of his choice. He marries a lovely peasant girl named Griselda, making her strip in front of his entourage in order to bestow on her an appropriate dress, and they wed on the spot. Gualtieri is delighted with his bride, as are his people, who are surprised by the peasant’s charm and grace. Still, the Marquis decides to test her patience. He pretends to have both their children--a girl and then a boy--and sends them to his aunt’s house to be reared. Loyal to her lord, Griselda does not make any complaint.

The Marquis is astonished at his wife’s stoicism, but he puts her to one more test thirteen years after their marriage. He has forged letters of dispensation from the Pope and convinces his advisors and Griselda that he has obtained a divorce. He sends Griselda away from his home with only a shift, or plain dress. He then sends for his children, disguising his daughter as his new wife. He invites Griselda to the wedding. She possesses great poise; she sheds not a tear at the painful sight and even compliments the young beauty who has ostensibly taken her place. Gualtieri then reveals the truth to Griselda, and the family reunites after thirteen long years. Says Dioneo, “Gualtieri was acknowledged to be very wise, though the trials to which he had submitted his lady were regarded as harsh and intolerable, whilst Griselda was accounted the wisest of all.” [33]

This difficult tale is often interpreted as a parable with biblical overtones. Griselda’s words mirror those of Abraham, Job, and the Virgin Mary. [34]

Modern Interpretations and Artistic Interpretations

From Pier Paolo Pasolini's controversial 1971 adaptation of "The Decameron."

The Trailer of 1953 Film "The Decameron Nights" which combined fictionalized parts of Boccaccio's life with his three most famous love stories. Bocaccio follows Fiametta to the country and tries to woo her, spinning two of his stories: the first of "Paganino the Pirate" about a young wife married to an elderly gent who prefers astrology to his marriage; the second is "Wager on Virtue" about an elderly merchant who loses his young beautiful wife in a bet.

Trailer of 2007 Film "Virgin Territory" which is loosely based on The Decameron, starring Mischa Barton as Pampinea.

File:Cymoniphigenia.jpg

Sir John Everett Millais, "Cymon and Iphigenia" (1847-8)

References

  1. "The Decameron." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 9 Oct 2009, 15:55 UTC. 12 Oct 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Decameron&oldid=318887124>.
  2. "The Decameron." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 9 Oct 2009, 15:55 UTC. 12 Oct 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Decameron&oldid=318887124>.
  3. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “Boccacio’s Life and Works.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 12 Oct 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/boccaccio/index.shtml>.
  4. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “Boccacio’s Life and Works.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 12 Oct 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/boccaccio/index.shtml>.
  5. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “Boccacio’s Life and Works.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 12 Oct 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/boccaccio/index.shtml>.
  6. Damrosch, David and Pike, David L. “Geovanni Boccaccio.” The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume C: The Early Modern Period. 2nd Ed. Pearson Education, 2009. pp. 146 -171.
  7. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “Boccacio’s Life and Works.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 12 Oct 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/boccaccio/index.shtml>.
  8. Damrosch, David and Pike, David L. “Geovanni Boccaccio.” The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume C: The Early Modern Period. 2nd Ed. Pearson Education, 2009. pp. 146 -171.
  9. Damrosch, David and Pike, David L. “Geovanni Boccaccio.” The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume C: The Early Modern Period. 2nd Ed. Pearson Education, 2009. pp. 146 -171.
  10. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “Boccacio’s Life and Works.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 12 Oct 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/boccaccio/index.shtml>.
  11. Mazzotta, Giuseppe. The World at Play in Boccaccio’s Decameron. Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, 1986.
  12. "Black Death." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 Oct 2009, 20:29 UTC. 1 Nov 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Black_Death&oldid=322983854>.
  13. Riva, Massimo and Michael Papio. “The Plague.” The Decameron Web. Spring 2000. Brown University. 2 Nov 2009. < http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/dweb/plague/causes/causes.shtml>.
  14. "Black Death." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 30 Oct 2009, 20:29 UTC. 1 Nov 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Black_Death&oldid=322983854>.
  15. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 805.
  16. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 13
  17. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. lxxi-lxxv
  18. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 1-3.
  19. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 4-24
  20. Aldo, Bernardo. “The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio’s “Decameron””. From The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. ed. Williman, Daniel. Binghamton: Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY Binghamton), 1982. p. 40.
  21. Aldo, Bernardo. “The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio’s “Decameron””. From The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. ed. Williman, Daniel. Binghamton: Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY Binghamton), 1982. p. 48.
  22. Aldo, Bernardo. “The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio’s “Decameron””. From The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. ed. Williman, Daniel. Binghamton: Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY Binghamton), 1982. p. 48.
  23. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. lxii-iii
  24. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. lxiii
  25. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. lxiv
  26. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. lxviii
  27. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 800-1
  28. Aldo, Bernardo. “The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio’s “Decameron””. From The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. ed. Williman, Daniel. Binghamton: Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY Binghamton), 1982. p. 43-44.
  29. Aldo, Bernardo. “The Plague as Key to Meaning in Boccaccio’s “Decameron””. From The Black Death: The Impact of the Fourteenth-Century Plague. ed. Williman, Daniel. Binghamton: Medieval & Early Renaissance Studies (SUNY Binghamton), 1982. p. 44.
  30. Damrosch, David, et. al. The Longman Anthology World Literature Volume C. (New York: Pearson Longman, 2009) 155-157
  31. Damrosch, David, et. al. The Longman Anthology World Literature Volume C. (New York: Pearson Longman, 2009) 157-160
  32. Damrosch, David, et. al. The Longman Anthology World Literature Volume C. (New York: Pearson Longman, 2009) 160-163
  33. Damrosch, David, et. al. The Longman Anthology World Literature Volume C. (New York: Pearson Longman, 2009) 160-171
  34. Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron. Trans. GW McWilliams. London: Penguin Books, 1995. p. 868-869
Personal tools