"Cannibalist Manifesto"

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Oswald de Andrade
"Cannibalist Manifesto", written by Oswald de Andrade, was published in 1928 and became the seminal text of Brazilian modernism. De Andrade creates a new and uniquely Brazilian style to exhibit themes of anti-colonialism, Brazilian modernism/nationalism, and tribalistic primitivism. He is highly critical of foreign and European influences on Brazilian culture and urges the intellectual community of Brazil to forge its own identity in the postcolonial world. De Andrade believed that Brazil's greatest strength rested in its ability to “cannibalize” other cultures by incorporating them, re-appropriating them, and regurgitating them as an entirely new and unique creation. De Andrade metaphorically cannibalizes figures from fields as diverse as psychology (Freud), literature (Shakespeare), and Portuguese colonialism (Dom João VI).

Contents

Oswald de Andrade's Biography

Background and Influences

Abaporu - a painting by Tarsila Fercher

Oswald de Andrade is the shortened name of the author José Oswald de Sousa Andrade, who was born in 1890 in São Paulo, Brazil and died in 1954[1]. De Andrade was a novelist, poet, and playwright considered one of the founders and most important members of the Brazilian modernist movement[2]. His thinking revolved heavily around the questions of national integrity, anti-colonialism, art-making, and primitivism, which he coalesced under the banner term cannibalism or anthropophagy.
De Andrade went twice to Paris where he found himself influenced by European thinkers. His first trip in 1912 exposed him to the futurism of F.T. Marinetti and the second exposed him to the avant garde movement[3]. These were formative experiences in his thought about rejecting European structures and styles. Instead of uncritically assimilating to these new influences, he favored the use of more indigenous and local sources. He once said “‘it is their duty to extract from the country’s enormous resources, from the treasures of color and light, our art, which must prove itself to be, along with our intense material task of building cities and cultivating the land, a superior manifestation of national character’” (de Andrade qtd. p. 156)[4]. Though he generally repudiated external influences, de Andrade found inspiration in the “Cannibale movement" in Paris and, later, the experimental dance and painting of his own country (160-161) [5]. He also admired the painter Tarsila Fercher, a Brazilian modernist painter who used cannibalist themes in her works such as "A Negra" and "Abaporu"[6]

Involvement with Brazilian Modernism

De Andrade earned a law degree in Brazil in 1919, created “Papel e tinta” magazine (1920), and organized the “Week of Modern Art” (1922) which linked him to many interdisciplinary modern artists. Together, this group of artists created the Brazilian modernism movement[7]. This new Brazilian modernism was not a regurgitation of “modernity” but rather a criticism of and response to it (160)[8]. De Andrade helped pioneer this new form of Brazilian expression with the goal of creating new forms of Brazilian art and identity expression in ways dissimilar to the foreign Portuguese standards.

Major Works

A Negra - a painting by Tarsila Fercher
His first novel was Memórias Sentimentais de João Miramar or The Sentimental Memoirs of João Miramar (1923) which employed techniques of narrative dissolution and word play[9]. This work has been stylistically compared to “Italian Futurists” as well as works by James Joyce[10]. He next wrote Pau Brasil or Brazilwood (1925), a series of poems which explained his primitivist views[11]. He urged the extrication of Brazilian culture from foreign impositions and utilized an extremely modern free verse style[12]. He later wrote Anthropological Manifesto (1928) which utilized cannibalism and nativism to create a general theory of culture[13]. In addition, he wrote Serafim Ponte Grade (1930), a novel that pointed out some of the contradictions and hypocrisies of modernism in the face of ongoing Brazilian suffering, especially as a reaction to the revolution occurring at that time. This also served to reorient his later philosophy towards greater socialism and pragmatism[14].

Historical Context

“Cannibalist Manifesto” was first published in 1928 as part of the Revista de Antropofagia (Cannibalist Magazine) [15]. This movement was centered around the idea that Brazil gained much of its strength from its ability to “cannibalize”, or adopt and incorporate, the positive elements of other cultures. De Andrade’s cannibalism is a complex concept created under the larger heading of Brazilian modernism. Cannibalism is a reference to the colonizing destruction by European powers for the sake of greed and power. It is also a satire of European views about American cultures (the savage, primitive, Brazilian cannibal). In that way it is a re-appropriation of the word cannibal as a locus of strength, identity, and power against the colonizers. De Andrade describes the metaphor by making just this distinction: “‘The Indian didn’t devour due to gluttony, but as a symbolic and magical act, upon which lies his whole understanding about life and man’”(de Andrade qtd. . 160)[16] The central metaphor is that of the Brazilian savage, or cannibal, as opposed to the civilized European[17]. De Andrade resignifies the “savage” as a cultural entity far more authentic than the impossible project of cultural assimilation[18]. De Andrade rejects the idea of imitation and promotes instead the cannibalism (and “incorporation”) of European cultures[19].
With this in mind, de Andrade hoped to take cultural values resulting from colonization and transform them to enhance indigenous culture. De Andrade wanted to bring attention to the fact that the African and Amerindian cultures of Brazil were clashing with the European cultures of ideal, creating a violent distinction between the colonizers and the colonized. The text calls for the parts of Brazilian culture defined by many as primitive to work to digest other parts of the culture. However, this did not translate to a direct challenge to modern ideals. Instead, de Andrade hoped that modern ideals could simply be “eaten” and then utilized to further the efficacy of “primitive ideals.

Style of the "Cannibalist Manifesto"

The "Cannibalist Manifesto” consists of a series of non-linked, small sections of prose separated by dividers. It cannot be classified strictly as either prose or poetry. It does not have rhyme, meter, or stanza structure. It also utilizes many sentence fragments and seemingly unfinished statements without verbs, clear subject, or direction of action. There is no coherent narration or plot progression and the tone is revolutionary and mobilizing.

In addition to his radical content, de Andrade applies his philosophy to his own style of writing. Instead of mimicking the prosodic style of his European contemporaries, he purposely rejected “logical-linear discourse”[20]. He doesn’t ignore European reference points, but instead incorporates them into the text to refute, criticize, or satire them. He references Freudian psychoanalysis, Marxism, primitivism, traditional philosophy regarding the state of nature (Rousseau and Montaigne), the “Manifeste Cannibale” of Francis Picabia, and “technical barbarism” expounded by Keyserling in the "Cannibalist Manifesto” [21]. De Andrade also uses traditional Tupi language (41)[22] to further invoke the multiplicity of identities occurring in this text.

The style of "Cannibalist Manifesto” is a pragmatic and concrete example of de Andrade's rejection of European writing structures. He attempts to create a new form of Brazilian artistic expression that is taken just as seriously as its European counterpart.

Themes of the "Cannibalist Manifesto"

Colonialism

Lucien Lévy-Bruhl

The most defining and significant aspect of de Andrade's thought was the constant juxtaposition of colonizing, European, violent, and evil interests to the native, indigenous, local, natural, and good Brazilian interests. He lived in a country struggling to create its own national identity and which had been paralyzed by the imposing superstructures of Portuguese thought. De Andrade’s primitivism was a response to that colonial power; a “return” in time and ideology to what was native to the country before European corruption. He demonstrated the worthiness of “primitive” culture (using “primitive” as a tongue-in-cheek label of the original cultures which European settlers had labeled as such) and the necessity of Brazil to create a new tribal identity. To do so, he proposes a matriarchal primitivism in “Cannibalist Manifesto” [23]. De Andrade describes his animosity towards previous Brazilian art as such: “‘We have an art with no personality because the memory of classic formulas has prevented, for a long time, the free emergence of a ‘true national art’’”(de Andrade qtd. p. 159)[24].
The entire text of the "Cannibalist Manifesto" can be seen as a critique of colonial relations. Each of the specific themes explored here is only an offshoot of the general criticism of the colonial oppression of Brazil that has been internalized to a point of paralysis. Portugal imposed particular forms of European religion (Christianity), ideology, philosophy, and psychology without regard for the particular cultural context of Brazil. Indigenous Brazilian tradition was vilified and covered over by a shroud of European imposition. The text uses the metaphor of clothing to express the difference between indigenous and European cultures: "What clashed with truth was clothing, that raincoat placed between the inner and outer worlds." (38) [25]. This illustrates two things: it highlights the differences between European and indigenous customs and it also equates colonialism with an oppressive and stifling covering over the natural "body" of Brazil.

A specific historical reference is made to Dom João VI, the King of Portugal who “made Brazil a kingdom” and “was Brazil’s last colonial monarch before independence” (47)[26]. He is referred to in disparaging terms as a metonymic stand-in for the larger colonial system. The text also refers to Lucien Lévy-Bruhl, another example colonialism. Lévy-Bruhl was a prominent French anthropologist who focused on the “primitive mentality”. He believed that primitive thought was “pre-logical” and “mystical”. He cited Emile Durkheim, and specifically the concept of “group ideas”, to support his beliefs that cultures could reason so differently. [27]De Andrade inverts the negative European labels of "native, primitive, or tribal" into positive identifying qualities. The ignorance and destruction of Brazilian tradition complicated Brazilian identity even in the postcolonial world. De Andrade wrote in this historical context and was one of the first thinkers to successfully forge an identity separate from Portugal.

Modernism

Raul Bopp's Cobra Norato
De Andrade’s work created a flashpoint for a Brazilian modernism around the issue of cannibalism: a metaphor for the interstices of European and traditional cultures within Brazil[28]. Another important modernist work, referenced in this text, is Raul Bopp’s Cobra Norato. De Andrade references the Great Snake, the central focus of theme of Bopp's work. However, in general, Cobra Norato focuses on many uniquely Brazilian rites and practices taking place in the Amazonian jungle. [29] In contrast to his earlier texts, the philosophy of “Cannibalist Manifesto” appropriated primitivism as “an aggressive tool” rather than promoting mere assimilation of different cultures[30].


De Andrade understood that it was impossible to simply repudiate all European thought. Modernity had been so violently imposed on Brazilian society that there was no way to destroy all of its vestiges. Instead, he incorporated some select elements of modernity into his new world and created “technological barbarism”[31]. De Andrade also satirizes trivial forms of technology such as films and movies, referring to the "starring roles" of those he critiques and that "American movies will inform us" (38) [32].
He also endeavored to highlight any and all factors which made Brazil "primitive" culture unique. One example of this is his celebration of the term "saudade". Saudade originally comes from the Latin word solitate, which translates to loneliness. [33] However, saudade does not have a direct English translation, though nostalgia seems to be close to its meaning. Saudade describes a feeling that is distinctly Portuguese, and there is an even a Day of Saudade celebrated on January 30. [34]

Indigenous Tradition, Primitivism, and Cannibalism

A Tupi Man
De Andrade first explored primitivism as a response to colonialism in Manifesto of Brazilwood Poetry (1924) which urged new forms of Brazilian poetry separate from the imposed structures of European literature[35].. Brazil, in his view, should not merely copy, but instead reject and reform European forms into a new national style[36]. De Andrade refers to two specific tribes, the Tupi and the Caribs, who exemplify the Brailian traditionalism he supports.

The first statement of "Cannibalist Manifesto" is "Cannibalism alone unites us. Socially. Economically. Philosophically." (38)[37]. The work begins with this strong conviction of cannibalism as the spectre under which all other themes will occur. De Andrade then universalizes cannibalism to become a relevant question for all cultures and nationalities: "The world's single law. Disguised expression of all individualism, of all collectivisms. Of all religions. Of all peace treaties."(38)[38].

Cannibalism is expressed in “Cannibalist Manifesto” as “absorption of the sacred enemy” (43) and an act that is “carnal at first, this instinct becomes elective and creates friendship. When it is affective, it creates love” (43)[39].

The key distinction to be made is between European cannibalism and native cannibalism. The European destructive impulse is “low cannibalism, agglomerated with the sins of catechism – envy, usury, calumny, murder. We are acting against this plague of a supposedly cultured and Christianized peoples. Cannibals” (43)[40]. On the contrary, native cannibalism is a productive force and can be used as a tool by the oppressed to violently destroy their oppressors. They can invert the relation of information flow. Instead of being subjugated to European influences, they can literally eat those influences, digest them, and excrete new, evolved, forms of art and culture. This cannibalism is productive and healthy whereas the European cannibalism is "cadaverized" (40)[41] and thus sterile and unnatural.
Cannibalism's pragmatic practicality can be seen in the text's statement of the "Need for the cannibalistic vaccine. To maintain our equilibrium against meridian religions. And against outside inquisitions." (39)[42]. Cannibalism is seen here as a potentially revolutionary project of rejecting the influences that previously stifled Brazilian possibility.
Perhaps this idea is best evoked in the line "Tupi or not Tupi" (38)[43]. It is important to note that although most of the text was not written in English, this line was originally written in English by de Andrade. The line is a reference to both Shakespeare and the Native Americans of Brazil. The Native Americans in Brazil are referred as Tupi. However, “To be or not to be” is also the opening line of a soliloquy from William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. This dual wordplay exhibits the interstices of European and Brazilian cultures and how inextricable the European influences became in Brazil.

Philosophy

Montaigne

Naturalism

“Cannibalist Manifesto” promotes naturalism as a form of material and concrete interaction with the world. It rejects what “ideas” that “charge, react, and burn people in public squares” (43)[44]. These are the religious, political, and cultural ideas that come from foreign entities and cannot mesh with the natural experience of indigenous peoples who “believe in sextants and in stars” (43)[45]. This idea is further explored in the juxtaposition of naturalist Brazilian religions (invocation of the sun and moon) with the dogmatic church of Christianity. The Tupi lived within and alongside nature whereas modernity subjugated and destroyed nature.
This is echoed in another fragment which refers simply to “the human adventure. The earthly goal” (43)[46]. The manifesto prefers human and nature to be the means and the ends of all experiences rather than an abstract divine entity or adherence to imposed law or culture.

Justice and Law

Moreover, the text derides justice as "the codification of vengeance" (40) [47], a critique of European systems which prefer the resolution of personal grudges to the implementation of an organic morality. He goes on to refer to science as "the codification of magic" (40)[48]. Europeans labeled indigenous justice and scientific systems as both vengeful and magical, but de Andrade here reverses the judgment and suggests that European ideals are no greater than those of the native. This finds another expression in de Andrade's comparison of European individualism (separation of humans from one another and from nature) with traditional collectivism which upholds the community as its social ideal.
Law and European justice systems are further criticized in de Andrade's anecdote: "I asked a man what the Law was. He answered that it was the guarantee of the exercise of possibility. That man was named Galli Mathias. I ate him" (41)[49]. Galli Mathias refers to the Portuguese word for nonsense (46)[50] and is meant to refer the inapplicability of European structures to their non-analogous counterparts in the Americas. Ultimately cannibalism triumphs over even the strictest implementation of European authority, the law itself.

Communism

There are several allusions to communist thought, the most obvious of which is the title's play on Marx's "Communist Manifesto." De Andrade stresses the need to take back Brazil from the colonizers and his language is often polemic and revolutionary. While he finds inspiration in communism, his revolution cannot take place under the auspices of purely European thought. He says: "We want the Carib revolution. Greater than the French Revolution. The unification of all productive revolts for the progress of humanity. Without us, Europe wouldn't even have its meager declaration of the rights of man" (39) and "From the French Revolution to Romanticism, to the Bolshevik Revolution, to the Surrealist Revolution and Keyserling's technicized barbarian. We push onward" (39)[51]. This all refers to a continuation of the revolutionary spirit against the imposed ideals of Europeanism and which Europeans have not been able to address adequately in their own revolutions.

Maps, Naming, and European Intellectualism

Vieira
The text criticizes the colonization of the world through maps and naming. It cites Napoleon and Caesar as examples of the same kind of imperialist conquest as that of the Portuguese in Brazil. He prefers “the undated world. Unrubrified” (41)[52].

De Andrade even substitutes mathematical terms when words won’t adequately express his sentiment as in “Real ignorance of things + lack of imagination + sense of authority in the face of curious offspring” (42)[53]. He here critiques educational indoctrination (“the Morality of the Stork”) both within the family and from colonizer to colonized. This is a form of violent structuring of indigenous thought by Europeans in their quest to civilize.
De Andrade uses the word paterfamilias to allude to the strict and omnipotent Roman head of family as a satire of the Portuguese patronization of Brazilian culture. De Andrade also regards intellectuals like Antonio Vieira quite negatively. Vieira was a Portuguese Jesuit who was considered to be one of the most elegant speakers and writers of his time. [54] However, de Andrade felt that his contributions were not in line with the vision of what Brazil should represent as a nation.
He goes further in his critique of education when he paraphrases the European view: "It was because we never had grammars, nor collections of old plants. And we never knew what urban, suburban, frontier and continental were" (39) [55]. He here highlights the difference between the sterile interactions with nature of the Europeans and the truer coexistence with nature of the indigenous peoples of Brazil (44)[56]. Grammar and trifling matters like the categorization and labeling of plants become unimportant when one is living alongside, eating, breathing, and ingesting those plants. He uses this to critique "the entrenched, inactive, vegetative attitude of the Brazilian literary and cultural establishment"(44) and he refers again to "the vegetable elites" (40)[57]. De Andrade also refers to logic (39) [58] as a European imposition that ignores, categorizes, and, in fact, destroys the traditional Brazilian modes of thinking. European thinking is configured as segmented, hermetic, and feeble whereas traditional knowledge is "thought that is dynamic" (40)[59]. These juxtapositions serve to highlight the multiplicity of differences between traditional and colonial knowledge and the ultimate need for incorporating more traditional ideas into the sterilized Brazilian intellectual circles.
The colonizers ignore the inapplicability of their principles to the particular situations of the indigenous peoples. They also ignore the possibility of wisdom in engaging with concrete and natural phenomena as the native tribes do. Colonizers refer to their interactions with nature as "primitive" or "savage" and instead create unnatural and superfluous means of communication and experience. To counter these opinions of indigenous people as savage, de Andrade cites philosophers like Michel de Montaigne. Montaigne was a scholar during the French Renaissance. He believed that by studying himself, he could study mankind. [60] De Andrade references Montaigne primarily because be encouraged his audience to realize that “civilized” culture often participated in more barbaric acts than “primitive cultures”. [61]

"Cannibalist Manifesto" also directly criticizes Portugal and supports traditional Brazilian culture when it states “before the Portuguese discovered Brazil, Brazil had discovered happiness” (42)[62]. The Brazilians were traditionally content and had all they needed to survive happily. Only with the Portuguese conquest did the problems and consequences of modernity plague the native population.

Religion

De Andrade juxtaposes European notions of religion with traditional ones. The main contrast here is between that of European monotheistic Christianity and traditional tribal mysticism. His religious analysis should be read with reference to the proselytizing missionary excursions to ‘civilize’ the non-Christian ‘heathens.’

“Cannibalist Manifesto” says “If God is that consciousness of the Uncreated Universe, Guaraci is the mother of the living. Jaci is the mother of plants” (42)[63]. Bary’s translation notes indicate that Guaraci is “Tupi sun goddess, mother of all men” and Jaci is “Tupi moon goddess, creator of plants” (46)[64]. Here De Andrade invokes cosmological images to highlight the differences between the two religions. European religion seems totalizing and structural with an omnipotent and distant God. In contrast, Tupi religion is grounded in natural metaphors of sun, moon, plants, and motherhood in closer relation to the experience of the worshippers.

The text continues with a juxtaposition of European “speculation” to Tupi “divination” and “social system in harmony with the planet” (42)[65]. This is a pointed critique of European deployment of religion as an instrument of destructive politics that do not adhere to the stated interests of religion or the community it supposedly serves. The Tupi social system is preferable because it is based on the human rather than the divine.

Atheism and Criticism of Christianity

One section says that it is necessary to actively work against natural atheism to “arrive at the idea of God” (42)[66] within the European tradition. Atheism is thus the original state of man and religion is only the corruption and manipulation of man’s natural feeling. While religious individuals constantly combat the threat of atheism, the Caribs allow their gods to form naturally out of their environment.
The text goes further and satirizes Christianity by suggesting that it worships a “created object” and that “Moses daydreams” (42)[67]. He then asks “What do we have to do with that?” (42)[68] and points out the inapplicability of Western religious paradigms to indigenous cultures.

Missionaries

The text specifically criticizes missionaries as “a lie told again and again” (41)[69] and refers to a particular Father Anchieta who was a Jesuit missionary in Brazil (47)[70]. Another missionary reference is to Father Vieira (39) [71] who was a Portuguese Jesuit "known as the 'Judas of Brazil'" and who embodies the Brazilian intellectualism and formalism that de Andrade critiques throughout the work (45)[72]. The missionary impulse of European colonizing powers uses an inorganic framework to inculcate an adherence to an oppressive religious power that happens to serve the interests of the colonizer. De Andrade specifically targets "catechism" (38, 39)[73] and "suspicious Catholic husbands" (38) [74], references to the imported Catholic faith of the Portuguese colonists. De Andrade resurrects the religion of naturalism and primitive interaction with the world: he prefers "a religious rhythmics" (39) [75] and "the palpable existence of life" (39)[76].

Indigenous Religion

De Andrade also specifically references indigenous deities such as the Great Snake (38) and the sun god (38)[77]. He also suggests that this European religion can be appropriated by Brazilians: "we made Christ to be born in Bahia. O in Belén do Pará" (39) [78]. The translator makes an important distinction here: that Jesus is here not imposed from the outside but instead created organically from a Bethlehem in Brazil itself (45) [79].

Matriarchy and Patriarchy

Gracchi
De Andrade uses recurring motifs of motherhood to highlight the differences between European and Tupi social ties and maternal nourishment.

The text calls on its readers to “expel the Bragantine spirit, the decrees and the snuff-box of Maria da Fonte” (44) [80]. The Bragantines were the Portuguese kings of the time (47)[81] and Maria da Fonte was a conservative woman allied with colonialism and against social improvements in Portugal – making her a bad mother (47)[82]. Another bad mother referenced in the text is the mother of Gracchi. Gracchi refers to two brothers – Tiberius and Gaius – who were elected officials in Rome in the 2nd Century, BC. Their mother was Cornelia Scipionis Africana. She is remembered for being highly influential in her two sons’ political careers. Some interpretations of character depict her as being unaffectionate towards her sons and only concerned about political and rhetorical excellence. [83]

Another fragment simply states “In the matriarchy of Pindorama” (43)[84]. Bary’s footnotes indicate that Pindorama is the Tupi name for Brazil (47)[85]. De Andrade specifically uses the name that native peoples gave to their own land and juxtaposes it with the European naming system that obliterates traditional meanings and languages. The invocation of matriarchy here is in opposition to the previously mentioned paterfamilias and in alignment with Guaraci, the sun mother. The patriarchy of the Europeans is illustrated in the allusion to Dom João VI who told his son to become emperor of Brazil to reimpose colonial rule after the country had become independent (47)[86].
De Andrade glorifies maternal familial relations, both the country as mother to its people and the mother as politically central identity within a community. The patriarchy and masculinity of European cultures focus on dominance and exclusion. Thus, the contrasting symbols of maternity in “Cannibalist Manifesto” not only demonstrate the differences between European and native cultures but also serve as a suggestion for a future politics of matriarchy.


Psychology

Sigmund Freud
The text critiques memory and instead prefers “personal experience” (43)[87]. De Andrade refers to the particular kind of memory and history that is imposed by European classifications of events and peoples that ultimately ignores the voices and struggles of those subjugated peoples. He calls on each individual to create his own experience that doesn’t rely on the mental crutches of any other. This can be extrapolated to his general position urging Brazil to become intellectually, artistically, and spiritually independent.

The text also heavily draws on Freud, particularly in two places. First, de Andrade references the fact that they “put an end to the mystery of Woman”(38)[88]. This is likely due to Freud's discovery of the subconscious. Freud believed that the unconscious was composed of what people actively repressed from their conscious thoughts, and that furthermore, the unconscious was what drove all actions and desires. With this in mind, the goal of psychoanalysis was to try to determine what was hidden the in subconscious. [89]

Freud also combined the worlds of religion, matriarchy/patriarchy, and psychology. In considering religion, Freud related totemistic and taboo systems of religion to maternal and paternal authority, respectively. He believed that religion was shifting to the taboo system, which has a connotation of religion shifting away from maternal authority and towards paternal authority [90]. This is referred to several times in the text: "The transfiguration of the Taboo into a totem. Cannibalism."(42) and "Down with the dressed and oppressive social reality registered by Freud - reality without complexes, without madness, without prostitutions and without penitentiaries" (44) as well as several references to memory and consciousness[91]. He uses the word "totem" to playfully invoke indigenism while simultaneously illustrating his preference of strong matriarchy or matriarchal thought to the cancerous patriarchies of Europe.

Audiovisual Additions

Portuguese Resources

The Portuguese version of the text can be read here: [1]. [92].

A reading of "Cannibalist Manifesto" in its original Portuguese by Debora Kaz:

Hamlet

The iconic "to be or not to be" speech from Hamlet as performed by Kenneth Branagh.


Cybernetic Cannibalism

The Chaos Communication Congress is a alternative contemporary group that investigates questions of technology in its relation to social development and culture. Their 26th convention featured what they call "cybernetic cannibalism," an update of de Andrade's cannibalism for the 21st century.
They ask: "What is there in common between The Cannibalist Manifesto...and online file sharing in the 21st century? What is the cultural diversity of Brazil – a society in constant formation – able to offer us to analyze the remix culture in the digital age? This work aims to investigate why Brazil’s culture is revealed as an inspiration for concepts as Free Culture and how the country was transformed in a laboratory of experimentation of new roads for the intellectual property debate....What are the youths of all countries around the planet doing with the digital technology today? We eat, and we eat a lot. We eat the songs of our idols, vomit news creations, and spread in the net. We eat images from media, we appropriate it, criticize it and subvert it. The bricolage, mash-up or remix techniques presented in the post-modern culture, are nothing more than cybernetic cannibalism. For Lawrence Lessig (2007), “we could describe it using modern computer terminology as kind of read-write culture. It’s a culture where people participate in the creation and in the re-creation of their culture. In that sense is read-write”"[93] The following is part one of a seven segment recording of the live talk by Cristiano Marinho and Helena Klang on the topic of cybernetic cannibalism. The talk covers background and analysis of the manifesto in addition to examples from current Brazilian artists who are creating in the spirit of de Andrade.

Citations and References

  1. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  2. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  3. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  4. Amaral, Aracy. “Oswald de Andrade and Brazilian Modernism: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Avant-Garde Visual Arts in the Twenties.” One Hundred Years of Invention. ed. K. David Jackson, 1992.
  5. Amaral, Aracy. “Oswald de Andrade and Brazilian Modernism: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Avant-Garde Visual Arts in the Twenties.” One Hundred Years of Invention. ed. K. David Jackson, 1992.
  6. Amaral, Aracy. “Oswald de Andrade and Brazilian Modernism: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Avant-Garde Visual Arts in the Twenties.” One Hundred Years of Invention. ed. K. David Jackson, 1992.
  7. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  8. Amaral, Aracy. “Oswald de Andrade and Brazilian Modernism: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Avant-Garde Visual Arts in the Twenties.” One Hundred Years of Invention. ed. K. David Jackson, 1992.
  9. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  10. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  11. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  12. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  13. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
  14. Messerli, Douglas and Green Integer. The PIP Anthology of World Poetry of the 20th Century, Volume 2, 2001, http://www.greeninteger.com/pipbios_detail.cfm?PIPAuthorID=11.
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